June 18, 2012

Brazilian Traditions

by Rodrigo

One of the most important cultural symbols in the Brazilian culture is the “Festa Junina” – June Festival. This festival originally came from Portugal, a country deeply rooted in Catholic tradition. June is the month that commemorates most famous saints of Catholicism: Saint Anthony on June 13th, Saint John Baptist on June 24th, and Saint Peter on June 29th. According to anthropologists, Festa Junina started before the Christian era with the summer solstice, when the Celtics and Egyptians celebrated the end of the harvest season.


Quadrilha dancing in Oakland - CA

The native Brazilian Indians have their own celebrations during winter (remember that in the southern hemisphere the seasons are reversed), those celebrations were added to the Portuguese celebrations brought by the Jesuits. Brazilian culture by nature embraces and incorporates traditions and festivities from all over the world.

During the celebrations of Festa Junina, you will taste lots of delicious foods, like pinhão, Curau, pamonha, doce de abóbora, sweet-potato and manioc (cassava, yucca or yuca…depending on where you are from). All of these dishes are part of native Brazilian cuisine and incorporate influence from Portuguese dishes like quentão, pé-de-moleque, bolo de fubá and etc. We have our own version of the mulled wine with spices and small apple cubes.


Traditional Festa Junina flags with USA and Brazil flags.

Dancing during the Festa Junina is always the highlight of the festival. Usually you’ll see a theater performance where a single man is pressured to marry a girl because she is pregnant and her father expects him to take responsibility. During the performance, traditional songs are sung and everyone participates, including the families of the bride and groom, priests, police officers, and everyone else from the imaginary village. Watch a great Festa Junina dance performance below:


April 6, 2012

Brazilian Music

by Rodrigo

I’ve never met a Brazilian that doesn’t like music. One of earliest memories of my childhood is my mom singing a song from Ataulfo Alves called “Pois é” – “Pois é! Falaram tanto, que desta vez a morena foi embora…” Because Brazil is so big and receives influences from all over the world, the quantity of musical styles is just enormous. The most famous styles are Bossa Nova, Samba and Forró, some believe that the word Forró is a derivative of the English expression “for all”.

Here are some of the most popular Brazilian rhythms in United States and Canada. I’ve posted audio samples of each type of music, paired with a description and some examples of the most famous artists from that genre of music. Feel free to google the artists names to learn more about them and hear other samples of their music. Obrigado!

Bossa Nova

Bossa Nova started in the 1950′s by a group of young Brazilian students and musicians that were in love with North-American Jazz. Here is a list of famous Bossa Nova singers and bands: Antônio Carlos Jobim, Astrud Gilberto, Billy Blanco, Carlos Lyra, Claudette Soares, Dick Farney, Elizeth Cardoso, Bebel Gilberto, João Gilberto, Johnny Alf, Lúcio Alves, Maysa, Nara Leão, Pery Ribeiro, Roberto Menscal, Ronaldo Bôscoli, Sérgio Ricardo, Sylvia Telles…and more.

Samba

The roots of Samba come from the influence of African slavery, in Brazil Samba originated in Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. It is a mix of various popular rhythms like batuque from the Bantos slaves and Portuguese rhythms.  Here is a list of famous samba singers: Adoniram Barbosa, Agepê, Alcione, Aracy de Almeida, Ari Barroso, Benito de paula, Beth Carvalho, Bezerra da Silva, Cartola, Chico Buarque, Demônios da Garoa, Dorival Caymmi, Elza Soares, Francisco Alves, Jair Rodrigues, Jamelão, Jorge Aragão, Martinho da Vila, Noel Rosa, Paulinho da Viola, Pixinguinha, Zeca pagodinho, etc.

Forró

Forró comes from the Northeastern of Brazil where it is very popular and played all year around. At the end of the 90′s this rhythm was transformed and started to receive more and more attention from the Southern part of country and internationally. These are some of the principal singers/bands from this Brazilian rhythm: Luiz Gonzaga, Sivuca, Trio Virgulino, Falamansa, Flávio José, Jackson do Pandeiro, Genival Lacerda and more.

Frevo

This rhythm is most popular in the State of Pernambuco and the dancers use an umbrella during the performance. It’s one of the coolest and most colorful dances I have ever seen, during carnival frevo is played at all the parties. Some famous singers are: Gal Costa, Moraes Moreira, Carlos Fernando, Elba Ramalho, Alceu Valença and others more.

Maracatu

Maracatu is an Afro-brazilian rhythm played by percussionists that represent the Congo’s Kingdom, it is performed as street theater. It is played with a slightly different rhythm in Pernambuco and Ceará States, some of the most famous Maracatu players are Calé Alencar, Roberto Cruz, Abissal and Nação Zumbi.

Sertaneja

Sertaneja is the equivalent of country music in USA. Its roots stem from the countryside of Brazil and it’s the most popular rhythm across the country. A list of the principal bands are: Bruno e Marrone, Chitãozinho e Chororó, Daniel, Gian e Giovane, Jorge e Mateus, Leandro e Leonardo, Tonico e Tinoco and Zezé di Camargo e Luciano.

Afoxê

Another rhythm from the states of Pernambuco and Bahia, Afoxê represents candomblé - an Afro-Brazilian religion. The most famous Afoxê group is the Filhos de Gandi, they perform every year during carnival in Salvador (Bahia).

Repente or Embolada

Repente or Embolada is a rhythm where 2 opponents sing against each other like a competition; they mock and use bad words in the context of the verse. The music is based on the facts of life and making fun of the  other opponent or making jokes, the crowd usually forms a circle around the Repentistas to watch the performance. The most famous repentistas in Brazil is Cajú e Castanha.

Lambada

Lambada is a rhythm from the State of Pará and comes from the Carimbó rhythm (see below). During the 80′s the French group Kaoma released a song called “Chorando se foi” (the original song was written in Spanish) and made the Lambada rhythm very popular in Europe, the Caribbean and United States. 

Carimbó

Carimbó is a rhythm that reaches far back into history, from a time when Brazil was a Portuguese colony. The rhythm was created by the native indians. The colonizers called this style of music “the forbidden dance”, because woman used very short clothes and the dance was very sensual for that period of time. The roots of this genre were developed in Belém (capital of Pará State). The name came from a musical instrument called “curimbó” and is made from a tree trunk.

Choro

Choro or Chorinho is a Brazilian rhythm from Rio de Janeiro. Despite the fact that the word choro means cry in Portuguese  -  the rhythm is very happy and up beat. Choro peaked in the 30′s and 40′s and used to be played live on the radio. A list of great choro musicians: Altamiro Carrilho, Armandinho, Chiquinha Gonzaga, Ernesto Nazareth, Jacob do Bandolin, Paulo Moura, Pixinguinha, Waldir Azevedo, and many more.

Samba-reggae

Samba-reggae is a mix of Samba with Jamaican reggae, created in Bahia. This mix happened because Bahia is the city with the most Afro-Brazilians in the country, and during the 70′s the black movement emerged in Salvador. The result is a type of samba that reinforces the pride of Afro-Brazilians. The biggest representations of this style are: Olodum, Timbalada, Carlinhos Brown.

MpB

MpB stands for Música Popular Brasileira (Brazilian Popular Music) and is the rhythm that replaced Bossa Nova. It received influence from samba, pop, jazz and rock. Because Brazil was governed by a military dictatorship regime during the time when MpB emerged, the music was very progressive. Some artists have become successful by playing Bossa Nova and MpB, a few examples are: Elis Regina, Edu Lobo , Chico Buarque and Toquinho.

Funk Carioca

Funk Carioca is a rhythm from Rio de Janeiro that uses beats from the Miami Bass style. This music receives much criticism because the lyrics are usually full of violence and sexual references.

 


December 10, 2011

The Brazilian dream

by Rodrigo

Brazil has been changing dramatically. Moving away from the individualistic mindset of the 70′s and 80′s, younger generations are thinking globally and making their dreams happen. This video talks about the importance in discovering and understanding this new generation, and how they are influencing and changing their communities.